The obvious difficulty with peer review for this type of book is to find an academic who is competent in Semitic languages, Egyptian, and Uto-Aztecan. Unfortunately, other than Brian Stubbs, there are none. The book went through a professional editing process. Unlike articles in journals, for an academic press to accept any work their first determination, just like other businesses is whether it will actually sell.
A specialized work like this has a very limited potential for distribution. The print run on the book was only books, and the demand has not been overwhelming although they have virtually all been distributed or sold. The most significant portion peer review of most books, as opposed to articles, occurs post publication in the form of book reviews.
In any event, there are two other book reviews so far that have been done by professional linguists, they can be found at my website http: There are some indications that another book review may be done by a Semitic journal, and the book is free to others of competence that desire to do a book review. Did you see the other review of the book, done by a linguist, in an earlier version of Interpreter? Yes, there is also a link to it on my website http: Stan, thanks for the input and for the question about Swadesh lists.
Swadesh lists are interesting tools for quick and easy analysis, but this is a very fuzzy instrument intended for other purposes that need not give high correlations even when a strong relationship exists between languages. Morris Swadesh developed a list of words while studying a Native American language in Montana.
Based on intuition, he proposed a group of words that was later winnowed down to words to be used for dating changes between related languages glottochronology. There is no agreement on which words or how many should be on the list. As I understand it, this tool is intended to trace changes between languages known to be related. So is that list useful for testing the presence of French, Latin and Greek in English? The way an infusion alters a language depends very much on the details: Does it provide a vocabulary for war, religion, medicine, diet, etc.?
This depends on the unique historical context. It may be possible for one language group to make a significant infusion into another but leave any of the many variant Swadesh lists largely untouched. For that, you look at the cognates and their abundance.
Thanks for your response, Jeff, and for your helpful review. If anyone is interested, I can go into this further offline—stanspencer1 at gmail. Thanks to the author for a detailed review of an exciting new area of Book of Mormon related research.
I have a couple of questions, perhaps better asked of Professor Stubbs: Why would one expect languages from the Central America area where the Book of Mormon peoples lived to influence tribes far north, like the Paiute and the Comanche? In the list of UA language groups prominent tribes in the UA tribal areas like the Navajo and the Apache are not listed. In answer to the first question, languages and people that speak them migrate over time. Thanks for the questions, Gerald.
The expertise required to compare Uto-Aztecan thoroughly to Near Eastern languages is rather rare. There may be similar treasures to find in other language families elsewhere in the America, but the studies have probably not been made by people competent in both the New World languages and the Near Eastern ones. This work may lead to other experts making the heavy investment needed to evaluate other possibilities.
However, the Book of Mormon does clearly show a tendency for groups to migrate to the north. Hagoth heads north and takes many in that direction. Nephites and their enemies strive to move northward. Nephite population grows to the north. There are many hints that north is the direction of choice. So it is possible that Nephites and their kin moved from Mesoamerica to the north and brought linguistic influence with them.
There is also a growing body of scholarship supporting the influence of ancient Mesoamerica on northern Native Americans. Regarding the second question, Navajo is in a different language family, Athabaskan, not Uto-Aztecan. This kind of thing happens all the time. In the vicinity of the little Fox Valley of Wisconsin, where I lived in Appleton for many years, one finds not only many English and Spanish speakers Indo-European groups but also several thousand Hmong speakers Hmong-Mien language family, an Asian group and a group of Oneida speakers an Iroquois language.
Thus, we have notable groups of 3 different language families from different continents clustered in a small location.
Human migration and historical patterns of contact can result in such messy mappings of language. Uto-Aztecan is not a geographic grouping, but a linguistic grouping, and does not include all the families in the broad area that UA spans. Jerry, thanks for your feedback and thank you for taking on the challenge of bringing this vital work to light. I hope more LDS people will rise up and show an interest in language and the Book of Mormon, and of course buy many copies of these works!
By the way, your book, Geology of the Book of Mormon, is another tremendous contribution to understanding that sacred text with the aid of modern science. Partway through right now, but hope to report on my experiences with your terrific work sometime soon. Right now, I can tell that the Stubbs work is over my head, although I can appreciate that it has great significance. Jerry, I was amazed and delighted to see that your website features a page with a link to a free!?
Wow, very generous of you and Stubbs! May I suggest you at least request a donation for user downloads? Wish I had had this PDF in preparing my article! I was working off the physical book which I am very happy to have on my equally physical bookshelf in preparing this paper.
Am glad to see that it is available electronically. It is not really free, I will be paying Brian a certain amount per download. I make all of my own personal work available for free. Stubbs served a mission to the Navajo and he notes that that language is not included in Uto-aztecan and no semitic influence is noted. However, their close neighbors the Hopi, is an uto-aztecan language. Stubbs has a most unusual background. To have expertise in Uto-Aztecan languages plus a degree in semitic languages, a masters in linquistics, able to speak Navajo and Spanish to boot, is truly amazing!
Most of the questions were answered by later commenters. I might add two comments. One, Yes, I returned from two years among the Navajo, and immediately looked into that possibility, but within days of looking at Sino-Tibetan and other Far Languages, I could see that Athapaskan came from across the Bering Strait.
Two, all the main UA pronouns are from Semitic or Egytian, as is a relatively high percent of its basic vocabulary: Is it possible that what you are seeing is that Pre-Columbian languages in the Americas originated or were at least influences by the languages of the Old World carried through the Bering Straights?
Thanks for the question, Steve. Stubbs does consider alternate possibilities. However, any theory drawing upon flux over the Bering Straight runs into the problem of chronology since migration via the Bering Straight was only possible thousands of years before Hebrew, Egyptian, and Aramaic existed.
The ancient roots of those languages if carried across the Bering Straits would not be close enough to those Near Eastern languages much later to convey the clear and specific evidence of influence that we can now see in the America.
Stan Spencer pleasantly asked a fair question about swadesh word lists, mentioning tiberian Hebrew and Nahua, which deserves more explanation. Mulekite Semitic-kw would better correspond to hebrew, but Mulek vocabulary is less prominent in UA than Lehite Semitic-p. So explainable changes make the Swadesh vocabulary lists problematic.
Thank you Stan and all for your congenial discourse. Brian Stubbs is not the only one claiming to find Semitic influence in a Mesoamerican language family. He believes he can demonstrate Semitic influence in both Uto-Aztecan and Mayan. Brant Gardner and I have a trip planned to Mexico where we hope to visit with Rocha.
I became aware that Brian was working on this language proposal sometime around I sent him an email inquiring about it and he very generously made available to me a pre-publication copy of the larger book that Jeff mentions in this article.
I think it is particularly helpful to hear from a prominent non-mormon historical linguist about what he thinks of Brian Stubbs previous Uto-Aztecan publications and professionalism:. I refer to it often, and am grateful to Brian for sharing it with me. Great comment, Beau, and thanks for the homework you did. Looking forward to scholars like Dr. Campbell more fully and directly engaging with the specific arguments developed by Stubbs regarding Old World influences on Uto-Aztecan.
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You are free to unsubscribe at any time. To learn more about our notification options, file formats and sources, visit our Stay Informed page. Another infusion of a different Semitic dialect shows different sound changes as if it evolved in a different environment before influencing UA, and this could be related to an infusion of Hebrew and Phoenician from the Mulekites: Stubbs offers three possible reasons, one of which is particularly illuminated by his work: The Mulekites may have developed different accent or tone patterns.
They may have started with different languages. The languages involved may have changed differently due to contact with other local languages. Stubbs draws upon the scholarship of Rendsburg 20 and others regarding the early presence of Aramaic in Israel, especially in the north, where it could have been part of the heritage of Lehi as a member of the tribe of Joseph: Is This a Credible Work?
Let us now turn to the details in these recent works of Stubbs. Abbreviations and Other Notes Several abbreviations will be used here, following Stubbs. Some abbreviations of UA languages: Further, it is often lost, as in these examples: Some are easy-to-recognize matches, while others may be more of a stretch but still plausible, such as: A few examples of Egyptian cognates follow: A few of many examples include: Stubbs adds this insight: The parallels between Semitic languages and UA identified by Stubbs follow demanding methodologies and show consistent, plausible sound changes that not only provide large groupings of related words, but also help explain some previous puzzles in UA, including: The phonology of medial middle consonant clusters, 74 a topic Stubbs describes as a huge problem in UA, is clarified by considering the influence of Semitic and Egyptian on the effect of adjacent consonants see Section 7.
How can such an alignment be coincidental? For the various UA forms of b vs. Many more examples are offered. Impressive Depth The entries in Exploring the Explanatory Power are far more than the amateur list of stray parallels some critics are imagining from Stubbs.
Weak Spots The introduction of the core hypothesis and supporting evidence comes somewhat piecemeal and may leave a reader initially confused in a few sections. Conclusion Overall, these two new works are impressive contributions not just to the study of language in the Americas but also to the study of the Book of Mormon. Endnotes For example, see Warren P.
A number of distinct groups of humans lived during this period but only our ancestor Homo sapiens has survived. During this time men were hunter gatherers , finding food from their local environment and moving from site to site depending on the season. Tools were made of stone but also of wood, bone, leather and vegetable fibres. Language also developed and its early forms may have been similar to the click languages used by some South and East African peoples today. The period also saw the beginnings of art , such as the cave paintings of Chauvet in France and Venus figurines statues of pregnant women and the development of religion.
The Mesolithic or middle Stone Age saw the development of finer, smaller stone tools such as arrow or spear heads. The first canoes were made. This meant that men could fish as well as hunt. The dog was also domesticated during this period, probably by the selection and breeding of the least aggressive wolves.
The Neolithic or new Stone Age saw the beginnings of agriculture. Animals such as the cow and sheep were domesticated and provided a ready supply of meat, milk, wool, leather and bone.
Grain was the first food that could be stored for long periods of time. Grain needed to be processed so stones were used for scything cutting grass crops and grinding. The need to harvest and store grain meant that it became necessary to stay in one place and settlements could develop. Large scale construction could take place, trade developed and people began to have different roles such as leader, priest, fighter, farmer, hunter or slave. Access thousands of brilliant resources to help your child be the best they can be.
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Of the phonetic hieroglyphs, most fell into three categories: Decipherment of Hieroglyphs The last dated hieroglyphic inscription was carved into the temple of Philae in CE. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Learning Outcomes When you are done, you should be able to: Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher?
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Browse Articles By Category Browse an area of study or degree level. How to Become a Real Estate Developer: You are viewing lesson Lesson 23 in chapter 6 of the course:. Homework Help Resource 36 chapters lessons. Foundational Concepts of World Major Belief Systems of the World Early Civilization of World Early Civilizations of World Ancient Civilizations in the Near East History of Ancient Greece: Hellenism and the Athenian The Rise of the Roman Republic History of the Fall of Rome The Rise of Christianity: Introduction to the Dark Ages The Early Middle Ages: The Medieval Warm Period: The High Middle Ages: History of Asia CE Eurasia and the Great Dynastic The Late Middle Ages: The Age of Exploration: The Reformation Across Europe Between the World Wars: Post War Europe, Asia, Middle Latin America Since
There were over 2, names of gods in Ancient Egypt. Some images of Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses show them with a human body and the head of a bird or an animal. Animals were chosen to represent the powers of the god. Bastet was the Goddess of Protection of joy, love, pleasure and pregnant.
Pharaohs were the king or Queen of Egypt. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were women. A Pharaoh was the most important and powerful person in the kingdom. He was the head of the government and high priest of every funday24.ml people of Egypt.
The Egyptian language, written in hieroglyphs, is fascinating. In this lesson we'll learn about the history and evolution of the language, about. Snowhawk's student and teacher resources including lesson plans and homework helpers.
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